What Is Type 1 Diabetes

type 1 diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that many people have heard about, but few people fully understand the characteristics of this condition, as well as the difference between each of its three main types: gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Surely, you are already familiar with many difficult terms that are often found in publications on diabetes: blood sugar level (glucose), insulin, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis – at first glance, it is easy to get confused, but when we understand the terms, you can it is better to navigate what is happening in the human body that has been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes Regardless of who you are looking for information for – for yourself, your spouse or a loved one – it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and available types of diabetes treatment.
Our body is amazing. Every second there are many hidden processes. When it comes to diabetes, we focus on the levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood and on how the body copes with these levels in the bloodstream, how it manages to regulate them and keep them within the normal range.


When food is ingested, the food is broken down into glucose (blood sugar), which is then used by the body to regulate metabolism and produce energy. After that, glucose moves through the bloodstream to each cell. At this stage, the pancreas plays a vital role, and it is at this stage that you can understand whether you have type 1 diabetes, because the amount of glucose in the bloodstream is controlled by insulin produced by the pancreas. If the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels, doctors diagnose type 1 diabetes.


As of 2016, the cure for type 1 diabetes has not yet been invented. Despite this, diabetes is a condition that can be monitored and treated, so that the majority of people with diabetes lead a healthy, successful and productive life.

Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong autoimmune disease, as a result of which insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed. Without enough insulin to control the situation, glucose will remain in the bloodstream, and its level will continue to grow. Therefore, type 1 diabetes requires regular administration of insulin in the form of injections or using an insulin pump. Insulin administration, diet changes and regular exercise can help maintain optimal blood sugar levels.


Every day, blood sugar levels in diabetic patients do not change at all like in other people. As a rule, changes in blood sugar levels are a response to eating or exercising. In healthy people, changes are regulated by insulin, which is produced in the body. If insulin is not produced, the diabetic is faced with the need to control insulin levels in the bloodstream. In order to keep track of what is happening in the body, a diabetic patient needs to constantly check their blood sugar levels with a glucometer. Ideally, blood sugar should be within 4–7 mmol / L (72–126 mg / dL) before a meal and about 5–9 mmol / L (90–162 mg / dL) 90 minutes after a meal. Blood glucose testing is an integral part of the daily regimen of a diabetic patient. In addition, it is important to understand your body and recognize its signals in time that the blood sugar level is raised or lowered – this will allow you to respond quickly to any situation.

A diabetic is at risk for hypoglycemic (low blood glucose) and hyperglycemic (high blood glucose) reactions. Below is information about how these states differ.

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This term is used to refer to a condition in which there is a drop in blood sugar below 4 mmol / L (72 mg / dL). Among the main reasons for which hypoglycemia can occur:

-Injecting too much insulin
-Skipping meals
-Consuming insufficient carbohydrates
-Excessive Exercise
-Unplanned Exercise
-Use of prohibited substances (eg Ecstasy or Cocaine)


This term is used to refer to a condition in which blood sugar levels reach values above 7 mmol / L (126 mg / dL). Among the main reasons for which hyperglycemia can occur:

-Injecting too little insulin
-Eating too much carbohydrates
-Exercise is less than planned.
-Alcohol consumption


If you or someone close to you is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you probably have a feeling of confusion, fear and uncertainty. The first thing you need to learn is that you are not alone. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10% of all diabetes cases in adults in Russia, and with proper monitoring and support, this condition will not prevent you from achieving success in the most diverse areas of your life.

Type 1 diabetes can occur in any period of life, but since it is most often detected in childhood, its second, erroneous name is juvenile diabetes. Also, type 1 diabetes is identified with the concept of “insulin-dependent diabetes” (ED) because of the need to constantly inject insulin.

If type 1 diabetes occurs, it can manifest rather quickly, usually within a few days. After identifying the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and seeking medical help, the diagnosis is made based on the results of several studies, including:

-Blood glucose test
-Fasting blood test
-Urine analysis for glucose

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